Dutch

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%27t_kofschip

Gender and Articles

  • Three gramatical genders: masculine, feminine and neuter.
  • Definite article:
    • de for both singular masculine and feminine, or plural.
      • Plurals
      • Professions
      • Tends to be used for people with an identified gender (e.g., de vader, de dochter)
      • Vegetables, fruits, trees, plants, mountains and rivers
      • Used for most words that end with -ie, -ij, -heid, -teit, -schap, -tie, -sie, -aar, -eur, -er, and -or.
      • Written-out numbers and letters
    • het for singular neuter.
      • diminutives (-je, -tje, -etje, -pje, or -mpje)
      • two sullables starting with be-, ge-, ver-, and ont-
      • verbs used as nouns (e.g. ‘the walking of the dog’), Dutch uses het (het lopen van de hond).
      • languages and names of metals
      • names of compass points (het noorden, the north)
      • names of sports and games (het schaken, the chess)
      • Ends with -isme and -ment
    • https://seblog.nl/2020/07/17/1/lets-talk-about-de-and-het

Pronouns

EnglishUnstressedStreessed
IIk-
You (singular)JeJij
HeHij-
SheZeZij
ItHet-
You(formal)U-
WeWeWij
You (plural)Jullie-
TheyZeZij

Verbs

  • Usually end in -en (e.g., eten, drinken).
  • Basic rule: stem + right ending.
  • Like in Portuguese, there’s tons of exceptions.

Regular Verbs

  • English present continuous and present simple boil down to just present in Dutch.

Present

PronounConjugationExample
IkstemIk drink
Jijstem+tJij drinkt
Hij/Zij/Hetstem+tHij drinkt
Ustem+tU drinkt
WijInfinitiveWij drinken
JullieInfinitiveJullie drinken
ZijInfinitiveZij drinken

Irregular Verbs

  • Only 6 verbs are completely irregular
    • Hebben (to have)
    • Kunnen (can)
    • Mogen (may)
    • Willen (to want)
    • Zijn (to be)
    • Zullen (shall)
PronounHebbenZijn
Ikhebben
Jijhebtbent
Hij/Zij/Hetheeftis
Uhebt/heeftbent
Wijhebbenzijn
Julliehebbenzijn
Zijhebbenzijn

Negation

  • Use niet and geen t"o negate (not interchangeable).
  • Geen negates nouns, just like “not a”. Also used for some nouns not preceded by articles, like plural and uncountable nouns.
    • Dat is geen man (that’s not a man)
    • Zij hebben geen boeken (they don’t have books)
  • Niet negates everything else: verbs, adjectives, etc. Comes after the subject.
    • Ik ren niet (I do not run)
    • Hij is niet zo oud (He is not that old)

Questions

  • Switch the verb with the subject (inversion).
    • Hij spreekt Nederlands.
    • Spreekt hij Nederlands?
  • When we invert the sentence for “je”, we drop the -t.
    • Je spreekt Nederlands
    • Spreek je Nederlands?

Plurals

  • 1st most common is adding -en
    • If it ends with ’s’ or ‘f’,it’s replaced by ‘z’ or ‘v’, respectively (muis –> muizen).
  • 2nd most common is adding -s
    • If it ends with a single vowel, an apostrophe is needed (menu –> menu’s), except when ending with -e.
  • Rarest forms:
    • Add -eren
    • Add -a: words that come from latin, can also be used with -s.

Pronunciation

Check:

Adjectives

  • If an adjective comes before a noun with a definite article, it usually ends with an -e.
  • When there is a possessive pronoun we also add -e.
  • If the indefinity article “een” comes before a het-word in the singular, it doesn’t get an -e.
    • een or; geen/elk/genoeg/ieder/veel/wat/weinig/welk/zo’n/zulk
  • If it comes before a de-word, it gets an -e.
    • een oude hond (de hond)
    • een oud huis (het huis)
    • oude honden
    • oude huizen

No article

  • Het-word -> No ending
    • Het water -> koud water
  • De-word -> Ending
    • De koffie -> Lekkere koffie

Predicate adjectives

  • Predicate adjectives follow a linking verb.
  • Do not get any special ending.
    • Het huis is groot.
    • De honden zijn duur.

Unchanging adjectives

  • Adjectives ending in -en.
  • Some others.

Words